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Who tells conservation biologists when the U.S. is invaded by a new foreign species?

Who tells conservation biologists when the U.S. is invaded by a new foreign species? …Farmers! Plus residential land owners and nursery operators!

With a goal to engage in additional assertive methods for preventing invasive pest species, researchers conducted a nationwide assessment in the U.S., identifying our most successful approaches surrounding invasive species detection. The study found that independent sources (residential landowners, farm, and nursery operators) were the most effective people in detecting new pests introduced to the U.S.

The society of conservation biologists hopes to use these results and further leverage independent detection sources as a way of increasing the source’s contributions to invasive species detection.


Read more about this study’s findings here:




Epanchin‐Niell, R., Thompson, A. L., & Treakle, T. (2021). Public contributions to early detection of new invasive pests. Conservation Science and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/csp2.422


Want to help preserve Maryland’s forests and property?

Protect Maryland from Emerald Ash Borers:

Emerald ash borers are wood-boring Beatles, an invasive species from North Eastern Asia, and are presently killing hundreds of millions of ash trees in North America. These beetles have been known to colonize here, in Maryland. Researchers in Maryland are trying to understand the broader impact of high volume invasive non-native insects threatening North American forests and arthropods associated with ash tree boles.

See the publication “Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on the community composition of arthropods associated with ash tree boles in Maryland, U.S.A.” in the Journal of Agricultural and Forest Entomology (2016) to better understand how these specific insects are impacting our environment.

If you want to take part in preserving Maryland’s forests and arthropods (insects, spiders, and crustaceans), give your local company a call today for a free preventative pest control assessment regarding invasive insects and Emerald Ash Borers!


Picture Source: University of Minnesota Extension, “Emerald Ash Borer”. “Why be concerned about the Emerald Ash Borer?” by Jeff Hahn, Extension Entomologist (2020). Accessed 3/1/2021



Jennings, D. E., Duan, J. J., Bean, D., Rice, K. A., Williams, G. L., Bell, S. K., . . . Shrewsbury, P. M. (2016). Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on the community composition of arthropods associated with ash tree boles in Maryland, u.s.a. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 19(2), 122-129. doi:10.1111/afe.12186

Prevent Tick Bourne Illnesses by Treating for Active or Potential Rodent Infestations

More Rodents Cause More Tick Bourne Illnesses


Increases in the rodent population of an area cause an increase in that same area’s nymphal tick population. Infected ticks with tick-borne microorganisms are dependent on rodent density.

In other words, preventing a rodent infestation may also prevent a visit to the infectious disease doctor for you!

How so?

Rodents are often a host to tick larvae; the rodents expose ticks to a slew of pathogens during this process.

Where did we learn this information?

On 1/20/2020, a study was published in the journal of Parasites & Vectors: “Effect of rodent density on tick and tick-borne pathogen populations: consequences for infectious disease risk.” This study elaborated on how scientists used separate plots of 2500 m squares to host varying densities of rodent populations, and then measure tick population densities for each square; this was done for the course of two years. The scientists used a linear model to measure the association between rodents, ticks, and pathogens. The research concluded that the plots with an increased rodent population also contained an increase in pathogen riddled ticks.


Commonly Known Diseases that can be Transmitted by Ticks:

  • Lyme Disease. Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a potentially serious bacterial infection affecting both humans and animals.
  • Anaplasmosis
  • Babesiosis
  • Ehrlichiosis
  • Powassan Virus Disease.
  • Borrelia miyamotoi Disease
  • Borrelia mayonii Disease
  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)


Call your local pest control company today to prevent rodent infestations and preserve your health!



Krawczyk, A.I., van Duijvendijk, G.L.A., Swart, A. et al. Effect of rodent density on tick and tick-borne pathogen populations: consequences for infectious disease risk. Parasites Vectors 13, 34 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-3902-0

Bedbugs: Anemia, Psychiatric Disorders, and Protecting our Elderly Population

Microbial Pathogenesis Journal (pending publication) December of 2020 highlights: “bed bugs can cause anemia, the start or worsening of psychiatric disorders, and target our elderly populations.”

Triangle Home Services, Inc., in partnership with Fogle Termite and Pest Control, looks forward to this article’s publication, to further understand the detrimental effects of bed bug infestations and how to better serve our communities.

Here is the article’s abstract: “Bed bugs bite can be considered as a possible cause of chronic blood loss and anemia in individuals inhabiting in hyperinfested locations. We report the rare case of a patient with massive bed bugs infestation suffered from severe dementia, malnutrition and social isolation which provided susceptible background for severe anemia.”



Izri, A., Marteau, A., Ferreira, T., Bruel, C., Benainous, R., Dhote, R., & Akhoundi, M. (2020). Severe anemia due to bed bugs hyperinfestation. Microbial Pathogenesis, 149, 104564. doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104564

Bat Season!!!

Let us Talk About Bats Since Bat Season is Here!

Bats make habitat of a person’s property to feed on flying insects. Mosquitos, stinkbugs, and moths are popular bugs within a bat’s diet. They also are drawn to properties that have less sound. More sound means more interference with their echolocation. They use echolocation to find food/flying insects since they are blind. Bats are most often found in a person’s attic, cellar, or walls; they are able to enter through the smallest of cracks/crevices.


If a bat finds its way into a common living space within your home, here are a few things to remember:

-Bats fly in a U shape, generally.

-They will try to cling to any bars of ledges in the room (curtain rods).

-Try to avoid being bit, they do carry rabbis on occasion.

-They fly from mid room height to ceiling height.

-They are handled best with leather material gloves.

-Once they are on the ground, they cannot take flight.

Seek medical attention immediately if a bat bites you, to reiterate, as they may carry rabies.


To avoid the presence of bats in your home, do these things:

-Treat for flying bugs/insects with a repelling application or via professional pest control services.

-Have a professional pest control services evaluate your home for entry point vulnerabilities and allow the pest control company to seal those entry points.

-Consider purchasing an echolocation disrupting device if you live in a quiet area.


Bat season is here, friends! Be sure to protect your home from a bat infestation; call your local pest control company today!!

What do you know about earwigs?

      What do you know about Earwigs?       


Contrary to popular belief, these insects do not crawl into peoples’ ears. If they do, it is on an exceedingly rare occasion. Their name is translated from Old English origin, ear wicga, which means ear wiggler or ear creature.


Are they common in the household?

There are 22 species of earwigs and about 4-5 of the 22 are household pests. So, they are mildly common.


How can you prevent or eradicate an invasion?

To prevent or eradicate an earwig infestation, it is important to treat/target places that are dark, cozy shelters. You also want to treat for centipedes and spiders, if you have an earwig invasion, as these pests feed on earwigs.

Commonly used applications that treat earwigs are as follows: permethrin, esfenvalerate, bifenthrin, pyrethrins, carbaryl, malathion, and azadirachti.

The pesticides mentioned are heavy duty and potentially harmful treatment options if not handled properly, so it is important to ask your local pest control company for help with earwig control when needed.


Now, sleep more sound!

Hopefully this news will allow you to sleep better at night; I can’t speak for the bedbugs though. Those are a very real problem that we can talk about on another day!!

Wishing you a great rest of the week from your local pest control company, Triangle Home Services, Inc. and Fogle Termite and Pest Control.




Gotter, A. (2017, December 11). Earwig Bite: In Your Ear, Symptoms, and Images. Retrieved August 11, 2020, from https://www.healthline.com/health/earwig-bite

Mosquitoes: How to protect yourself and understanding the risks of a bite

Protection from Mosquitoes



Why do we need mosquito protection?


-Mosquitoes spread viruses that make us sick. Less commonly, these sicknesses kill us. Nonetheless, the risk of fatality remains.

-Some of the viruses that we contract from mosquitoes can cause long term disease/illness.

-Of the least concerns regarding mosquitoes, their bites are annoying and itchy.


Which viruses do we need to know about, specifically, when considering mosquito contamination?


  1. West Nile Virus (WNV): It is the most common spread virus by mosquitoes in the continental U.S. For clarification, the continental U.S. refers to every state residing on the continent of North America. There are no vaccines to prevent or medications to treat West Nile Virus. 1 in 5 people with West Nile Virus develop a fever and other mild to intermediate symptoms. 1 in every 150 people with West Nile Virus develop serious, sometimes fatal illness. Severe symptoms of WNV are encephalitis, meningitis, confusion, and/or seizures. Symptoms within the mild category take place in 80% of cases: fever, headache, vomiting, and/or rash. While WNV was discovered first in New York in 1999, it has been around, globally for much longer. Scientists theorize that an infected stowaway mosquito first introduced WNV to the U.S.; the infected mosquitoes are originally from The West Nile District of Uganda.[1] [2]


  1. Zika: Zika is spread by daytime active mosquitoes and gets its name from the Zika Forest of Uganda. In the 1950s, the virus took place from Africa to Asia; it started to spread across the Pacific Ocean (Eastward) in 2007, leading to the 2015-2016 Zika Virus epidemic in the Americas. Zika Virus commonly causes a range of symptoms within the mild to “non-existent” category. On more rare occasions, Zika virus causes Guillain-Barre Syndrome in adults. Perhaps, one of the most alarming facts about Zika is that it spreads from a pregnant woman to her baby, which may cause the unborn child microcephaly, severe brain malformation, and other birth defects. The only thing that helps Zika virus in mild displays is taking ibuprofen and resting.[3] [4] [5] [6]


  1. LACV (La Crosse Encephalitis Virus): This virus can turn into a permanent terminal or chronic illness in severe and rare cases. “LACV was discovered in 1965, after the virus was isolated from stored brain and spinal tissue of a child who died of an unknown infection in La Crosse, Wisconsin in 1960. It comes from a species of mosquito that entered the US and spread across the SE of the US. There are 80-100 U.S. cases per year, but it is believed that the virus is under-reported because of occurrences where victims incur mild symptoms. The virus causes encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain. 5-15 days is the amount of time it takes for a LACV infected mosquito bit to show symptoms. Nausea, headache, and vomiting occur in mild cases, while seizures, coma, paralysis, and permanent brain damage take place in severe cases. The severe cases occur more commonly in children under the age of 16, and death occurs in less than 1% of clinical cases. [7] [8]


How can you be proactive in preventing a mosquito infestation/ opportunities to be bitten?


-Wear reputable mosquito repellents during mosquito season; their season takes place from Summer to Fall.

-If you are going to an area that is heavily wooded or contains standing water, consider wearing long sleeves.

-Remember that there are daytime and nighttime mosquitoes, so there is no time in the day where you would be less likely to receive a mosquito bite.

-In the cold, mosquitoes hibernate in areas where they seek warmth: garages, sheds, under or inside of home, and enclosed spaces; be sure to take extra caution amidst these areas during colder mosquito season.

-Do not leave standing water on your property: puddles, bird baths, water filled tubs/pots/buckets, etc.

-Sign up for mosquito treatments to be done on your property during mosquito season.



What happens during a mosquito treatment?


An inspector comes out to do an evaluation first and inform you of high-risk areas regarding mosquito homing. Recommendation will be offered to you to ensure the prevention of mosquito homing, regarding items or areas of the property that may need adjustment. Following your inspection, a technician would come out once a month at minimum to provide a spray application to your property. The spray application is a mosquito eradicator and deterrent that is micro-encapsulated, and EPA regulated, allowing it to last much longer than over the counter purchases.



Call your local pest control company today to ensure your family’s safety regarding mosquito infestations!!!





[1] Knox, R. (2012, August 29). With West Nile On the Rise, We Answer Your Questions. Retrieved July 06, 2020, from https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2012/08/29/160254867/with-west-nile-on-the-rise-we-answer-your-questions.

[2] General Questions About West Nile Virus”www.cdc.gov. 19 October 2017. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2017.

[3]  Malone RW, Homan J, Callahan MV, Glasspool-Malone J, Damodaran L, Schneider A, et al. (March 2016). “Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges”. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 10 (3): e0004530. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004530PMC 4774925PMID 26934531.

[4] “Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment”Zika virus. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 3 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March2016.

[5]  “Zika virus microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome situation report” (PDF). World Health Organization. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2016.

[6]  Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Petersen LR (May 2016). “Zika virus and birth defects – Reviewing the Evidence for Causality”. The New England Journal of Medicine. 374 (20): 1981–1987. doi:10.1056/NEJMsr1604338PMID 27074377.

[7] McJunkin, J. E.; de los Reyes, E. C.; Irazuzta, J. E.; Caceres, M. J.; Khan, R. R.; Minnich, L. L.; Fu, K. D.; Lovett, G. D.; Tsai, T.; Thompson, A. (March 2001). “La Crosse Encephalitis in Children”. The New England Journal of Medicine344 (11): 801–7. doi:10.1056/NEJM200103153441103PMID 11248155.

“Epidemiology & Geographic Distribution | la Crosse encephalitis | CDC”. 2018-09-14.

[8] “Epidemiology & Geographic Distribution | la Crosse encephalitis | CDC”. 2018-09-14.

CARPENTER BEES: What you need to know..


Carpenter Bees and Bumblebees: twins (almost..)

Carpenter Bees are often confused with bumble bees, as their appearances are remarkably similar. A professional, however, would be able to tell the two apart. If you are not a professional and are trying to determine whether a property has carpenter bees versus bumble bees, take a look at their abdomens. The carpenter bee’s abdomen is nearly hairless and shiny; a bumble bees’ abdomen is dense with hair.

5 Types of Cpr. Bees!

The United States hosts 5 varying species of carpenter bees. If you live in the Western regions, you are likely to see Valley Carpenter Bees, Horsefly-Like Carpenter Bees, and California Carpenter Bees. If you live in the Eastern regions, you will see Eastern Carpenter Bees and Southern Carpenter Bees.


Suspicions of an invasion… What are these bees doing on your porch, anyway?

Carpenter Bees, like carpenter ants, do not ingest wood that they chew through. They spit the wood out. I am sure you have seen a perfectly round hole on the underside of a wooden beam or deck railing, and wondered: 1. How is this circle so perfectly shaped, if it is from a bee? and/or 2. How did all of these perfectly round holes appear? It is highly likely that the holes are from the carpenter bees. The bees sometimes reuse the wood particles they chew through to build on their nests inside of the wooden burrow. The tunnels serve as nurseries and storage for the pollen/nectar that is collected.


Risks/Concerns to Consider

One of the biggest risks with hosting a carpenter bee invasion is woodpeckers. Woodpeckers love to feast on carpenter bees and especially their larvae. Woodpeckers can create substantial damage to wooden structures, far more than the carpenter bee. The bees offer a mild amount of damage their selves.



There are ways to eradicate and, better yet, prevent a carpenter bee issues…


-liquid or aerosol applications to burrow entry points.

-Plugging entrance holes to prevent tunneling, moisture intrusion, and wood decay.

-Wood surface treatments for either prevention of bees altogether or treatment for large infestations.

-Applying a layer of paint onto your wood also serves as a decent repellent but is not guaranteed.

-And lastly, carpenter bee traps.


Where next?

Our companies, Fogle Termite and Pest Control and Triangle Home Services, Inc. offer all of the treatment options above, except for trapping.

Be sure to reach out today and ask for a free inspection/ estimate to ensure safety regarding your home and carpenter bees!





Erler, Emma (January 2, 2018). “Why is a woodpecker knocking on the cedar shingles of my house and how do I make it stop?”. NH Extension.


 Potter, M. “Carpenter Bees”. University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Department of Entomology. Retrieved 06/24/2020.


 Robert A. Zabel; Jeffrey J. Morrell (2 December 2012). Wood Microbiology: Decay and Its Prevention. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-323-13946-5.

CARPENTER ANTS: What about them?

If you are looking at an ant in your home, and it appears to be particularly large, chances are that you are looking at a carpenter ant. Carpenter ants are typically ¼ to ½ inches long. A winged queen carpenter ant can be up to ¾ inches long.


Carpenter ants love to start tunneling in wood that is damp, so if you have water damage in your home, you are at a higher risk of a carpenter ant invasion. What these ants do, is they start chewing into the softer, damp wood, and from there, they tunnel into the harder, more sound wood of a structure.


A tunnel, or irregularly shaped hollowing of wood they have chewed through, is called a gallery. In these galleries is where the carpenter ants attain their ultimate goal: laying eggs and feeding their young within wooden structures. The softer, wet wood obviously makes for an easier material to chew through; in addition to this advantage the ants have with wet wood, the water offers growth of fungus/molds as a food supply.


Contrary to a common misconception, carpenter ants don’t actually ingest wood, like termites do. Their food sources entail: the mold/fungus within the wet wood, as previously mentioned, along with other dead or alive insects. They are especially happy to eat sweets, fats, and proteins.

The carpenter ants’ sweet tooth, so to say, is what brings them into OUR view.. A human’s view. They venture out from their wooden burrows, scouting for the foods that us humans ingest within our homes.


It is in that moment, where you are searching for a treat yourself, that you stumble across the abnormally large carpenter ant and wonder…. Where is that coming from?… or Do we have a carpenter ant problem?… and finally, Is our home still structurally sound?


After your encounter, it would be ideal to have your suspicions investigated.


There are a few ways to prevent and eradicate a carpenter ant issue, so let me cover the prominent options that our companies extend to customers:

  1. Number one is to prevent an infestation all together. Being prompt with caring for leaks or water damage to the home, clearing away rotting trees and lumber piles, making sure that no tree branches or twigs are touching your home (serving as bridges for ants to enter), seal cracks and opening around the foundation, especially where pipes and wires enter from outside. It would also be a good idea to stack firewood away from the house and off of the ground.
  2. Inspecting to determine where carpenter ants’ colonies may be located on your property: inside the home versus outside of the home. Sometimes, you see carpenter ants inside of your home, simply because they are foraging for food to take back outside to their nests. In tracking the foraging trails, we may understand the location of the ants’ nests. After this observation, the inspector would determine how large of a carpenter ant infestation a property has, meaning, colonies versus satellite colonies. A satellite colony is less fortunate for a homeowner but not uncommon. Satellite colonies mean that the carpenter ants have essentially formed a “town” versus a single-family home. Multiple homes… All in all, this step towards eradication or prevention would be labeled as gaining understanding to the dynamics of a carpenter ant infestation specific to your property for the best consideration towards pest control.
  3. Baiting carpenter ant trails.
  4. Spraying insecticides to the perimeter of your home.
  5. Treating galleries and voids with foam and dust applications.

Call your local pest control company, Triangle Home Services, Inc. or Fogle Termite and Pest Control to get a free inspection and estimate. If you are happy with the estimate, services can be done the same day, if not the next.

What we need to know about the “Murder Hornet”

What we need to know about the new “Murder Hornet”

Yes, the rumors are true. The Asian Giant Hornet, also known as Murder Hornet, has entered the U.S. as an invasive species.

If you have been tuning into our podcasts, you will know what I mean when I use the term “invasive species”. An invasive species does as follows:

Enters a location it is not native to.

Tends to spread.

Causes damage to the environment, human economy, or human health.


So, what makes the Murder Hornet invasive to the U.S.?

Well, firstly, it is not a native here; the hornet comes from East Asia, South Asia, Mainland Southeast Asia, and parts of the Russian Far East.

Secondly, it is a predator to Honeybees, various other bee species, and prey mantis’. One, single, hornet can kill an average of 40 Honeybees in just one minute.

And lastly, the “murder hornet” has not reaped its name with no merit. This particular hornet has a poisonous sting, and given too many stings to a human being, it can be lethal.

According to studies and research done in China, 10 stings from a murderous hornet warrants the seeking of medical help. 30 stings warrant emergency treatment. It has been observed that Asian Giant Hornets killed about 41 people in the year of 2013; with fatality related to multiple organ failure, cardiac arrest, and anaphylactic shock.


So, what happens when you get stung?

Since our bodies are unable to neutralize the potent venom toxicity at a high level, multiple stings will cause skin necrosis and skin hemorrhaging. With a strong correlation between number of stings and multiple organ damage or failure, the severity of our outcomes depends on the number of stings that have been received.


THE BIGGEST QUESTION: How do we exterminate murder hornets and better yet, how do we prevent them from becoming a pest to our home/property?

  1. Installing protective screens to your outdoor spaces: It would be wise to contact your local pest control company and inquire about protective screens for preventing murder hornet invasions and really pest invasion in general. Some pest control companies may not offer this option, as a home improvement company would be a better suggestion. Our companies, Triangle Home Services, Inc. and Fogle Termite and Pest Control thankfully have both industries incorporated in our services. Offering pest control and home improvement, since we often find they are best served hand in hand, we could install such screens for customers.
  2. Calling a pest company, the moment you notice a nest or beehive. It will be hard to tell which kind of bee/wasp/and or hornet colony has created the nest, so best to not take guesses on the species of bee unless of course you have seen the bees and know they’re not murder hornets. When a pest company, like ourselves, come to assess the hive, we may be able to better diagnose which species doing took place. Better yet, we would consider one of the options to remediate the hive issue: a. bag and remove the whole thing from your property, than treat the bag of pests/hive at another location off of your property, b. plug the entrance to the hive, after assessing that most of the hornets are inside of it. When the hornets can’t leave the hive, they die. C. mass poisoning to the hive, which would entail a spray to the hive and its interior.
  3. Try to avoid allowing standing water on your property, if possible. Also be sure to not leave out sugary foods since this will draw in the hornets.


These hornets, The Asian Giant Hornet, or Murder Hornets are intimidating to most, as they should be. But with proper preventative measures and caution upon observance or contact, we can handle these invasive killers.

Call Triangle Home Pest Control Inc. or Fogle Termite and Pest Control today to inquire about protection from these deadly hornets at your leisure. Our inspections and estimates are always free of charge.

Triangle Home Services, Inc, Phone Number is 410-635-2006

Fogle Termite and Pest Control Phone Number is 410-970-4468


05/19/2020 8:19:08 PM



Branigan, Tania (26 September 2013). “Hornet attacks kill dozens in China”. The Guardian.


Kosmeier, Dieter (27 January 2013). “Vespa mandarinia (Asian Giant Hornet) page“. Vespa-crabro.de. Retrieved 18 March2013.


Makoto; Sakagami, Shôichi F., et.al (1973). “A Bionomic Sketch of the Giant Hornet, Vespa mandarinia, a Serious Pest for Japanese Apiculture (With 12 Text-figures and 5 Tables)“. 北海道大學理學部紀要. 19 (1): 125–162. hdl:2115/27557.


Piper, Ross (2007). Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals. pp. 9–11. ISBN 978-0-313-33922-6.


Smith-Pardo, Allan H; Carpenter, James M; Kimsey, Lynn; Hines, Heather (May 2020). “The diversity of hornets in the genus Vespa (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Vespinae), their importance and interceptions in the United States”. Insect Systematics and Diversity. 4 (3). doi:10.1093/isd/ixaa006.


[1] USDA New Pest Response Guidelines: Vespa mandarinia Asian giant hornet


Yanagawa, Youichi; Morita, Kentaro (10 October 1980). “Cutaneous hemorrhage or necrosis findings after Vespa mandarinia (wasp) stings may predict the occurrence of multiple organ injury: A case report and review of literature“. Clinical Toxicology. Informa Healthcare USA. 45 (7): 803–807. doi:10.1080/15563650701664871. PMID 17952752.


ハチ刺されと死亡事故”. www2u.biglobe.ne.jp. Retrieved 4 May 2020.